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DIABETES
Diabetes is a syndrome characterized by disordered metabolism and inappropriately high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) resulting from either low levels of the hormone insulin or from abnormal resistance to insulin's effects coupled with inadequate levels of insulin secretion to compensate.

SYMPTOMS OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA

  • Thirst, dry mouth
  • Polyuria
  • Nocturia
  • Tiredness, fatigue
  • Recent change in weight
  • Blurring of vision
  • Pruritus vulvae, balanitis (genital candidiasis)
  • Nausea; headache
  • Hyperphagia; predilection for sweet foods
  • Mood change, irritability, difficulty in concentrating, apathy

COMPARATIVE CLINICAL FEATURES OF TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 DIABETES

Typical age at onset

< 40 years

> 50 years

 

 

 

Duration of symptoms
years

Weeks

Months to

Body weight

Normal or low

Obese

Ketonuria

Yes

No 

 

 

 

Rapid death without treatment with insulin

Yes

No

 

 

 

Autoantibodies

Yes

No

 

 

 

Diabetic complications at diagnosis

No

25%

 

 

 

Family history of diabetes

Uncommon

Common

 

 

 

Other autoimmune disease

Common

Uncommon

 

 

 

 

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